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Maker(s):Barnard, Julius (attributed)
Culture:American (1769-after 1820)
Title:side chair
Date Made:ca. 1795
Materials:wood: cherry, white pine, Southern yellow pine
Place Made:United States; Massachusetts; Northampton
Measurements:overall: 39 x 21 1/2 x 16 in.; 99.06 x 54.61 x 40.64 cm
Narrative Inscription:  carved into underside of the rear seat rail and under the back rail of the slip seat: "III"
Accession Number:  HD 57.022
Museum Collection:  Historic Deerfield

One of three Chippendale side chairs in cherry, probably made by Julius Barnard of East Windsor, Connecticut and later Northampton, Massachusetts. Julius, a nephew of Joseph Barnard (1717-1785) of Deerfield, was apprenticed to Eliphalet Chapin (1741-1807) in the late 1780s in East Windsor, Connecticut, where he learned the Philadelphia style. He moved to Northampton, Massachusetts, by 1792, where his advertisements allude to elaborate forms and his work in New York City. His skills and ambitions regularly out-stripped his patrons' ability to pay for them; he left Northampton in 1801 to work in Hanover, New Hampshire and Windsor, Vermont, before moving to Montreal about 1809. These chairs were part of a set owned by Joseph Barnard's son, Samuel Barnard (1746-1819) of Deerfield, whose reputation was enhanced by the large Palladian house build on the town common for his father in 1769. The chair has a center carved shell, heavy molded ears, pierced splat, two heavy front cabriole legs ending in ball and claw feet, and stump rear legs. The glue block is white pine and the proper left side of the slip seat is Southern yellow pine. There are two twentieth-century lables on the corner blocks. One reads: "Chippendale chairs/were property of/[illegible]/Samuel Barnard/[illegible]/[illegible]" and the other: "Chippendale chair./Came from Deerfield/Made in 1796 from/house built in 1768/Chippendale worked in/London back [?] of 1750. Not/known when chair came/over." See images in object file.

Label Text:
Samuel Barnard (1746-1819) probably commissioned his cousin, Northampton cabinetmaker Julius Barnard, to make a set of six chairs, including this Philadelphia-inspired example, for the best parlor of the house in Deerfield that Samuel inherited from his father, Joseph Barnard, in 1785. By 1794, financial setbacks prompted him to sell the house and move to Vermont. Julius Barnard’s master, East Windsor, Connecticut cabinetmaker Eliphalet Chapin (1741-1807) based this chair’s splat on examples he encountered as a journeyman cabinetmaker in Philadelphia between 1767 and 1770. It derives from examples in pattern books popular in cabinetmaking shops starting in the middle of the eighteenthh century. Working as Chapin’s apprentice in the 1780s, Julius Barnard learned this design and, after 1792, reproduced it as one of several Chapin-derived options available to customers in his Northampton cabinetmaking shop. He advertised “Easy chairs, compass chairs, framed chairs (similar to this example), plain chairs of all kinds.”

Original owner:
These chairs were part of a set that Barnard made for his cousin, Samuel Barnard (1746-1819), whose reputation was enhanced by the large Palladian house that his father, the wealthy Deerfield merchant Joseph Barnard (1717-1785) built on the town common in 1769 and that he inherited in 1785.

After learning the Philadelphia style from East Windsor, Connecticut, cabinetmaker Eliphalet Chapin (1741-1807), Julius Barnard established a cabinetmaking shop in Northampton. In 1801, he relocated first to Hanover, New Hampshire, then Windsor, Vermont. By1809 he had settled in Montreal where he made furniture until the War of 1812. Compelled to hastily move back to the United States, he found work as a journeyman cabinetmaker in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

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