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Culture:French and American
Title:diploma: Society of the Cincinnati
Date Made:1784
Type:Book/Manuscript/Document; Ceremonial
Materials:parchment, ink
Place Made:France; Paris and United States; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia
Measurements:overall: 20 x 26 3/4 in.; 50.8 x 67.945 cm
Accession Number:  HD 2003.51.1
Credit Line:Museum Collections Fund
Museum Collection:  Historic Deerfield

Diploma or certificate granting Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Maxwell (1733-1799) membership into the Society of the Cincinnati, signed by George Washington (1732-1799), 1st President of the United States and President of the Society of Cincinnati and countersigned by Henry Knox (1750-1806) as Secretary of the Society, Philadelphia, May 5, 1784. It reads: "Be it known that Lieutenant Colonel HUGH MAXWELL/ is a Member of the Society of the Cincinnati, instituted by the Officers of the American Army, at the Period of its Dissolution [sic], as well/ to commemorate the great Event which gave Independence to North America, as for the laudable Purpose of inculcating the Duty/ of laying down in Peace Arms assumed for public Defence [sic], and of uniting in Acts of brotherly Affection and Bonds of perpetual Friendships/ the Members constituting the same./ IN TESTIMONY, whereof I, The President of the said Society, have hereunto set my Hand at Philadelphia,/ in the State of Pennsylvania this FIFTH day of MAY in the/ Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Four and in the EIGHTH Year of the Independence of the United States./ By order,/ H Knox Secretary./ Go: Washington President." The idea of the Society of the Cincinnati is credited to Henry Knox who was Washington's first Secretary of War (1785-94). The Society was founded in May, 1783, at the Verplank house, Fishkill, New York, by Continental Army officers who fought in the American Revolution, which was before the signing of the Peace Treaty and the British evacuating New York. As senior officer, the Honorable Major General Baron von Steuben presided at the organizational meetings; within 12 months, Constituent Societies were established in the 13 original states and in France under the auspices of the General Society of the Cincinnati, with about 2150 of the 5500 eligible officers joining. Washington was elected its first president in Dec 1783, serving until his death in 1799. Both the diploma and Eagle badge were designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant (1754-1825) in June 1783. He left for Paris in November 1783 with his original sketch of the diploma where Augustin-Louis La Belle (1757-1841) redrew it so that it could be accurately rendered as a copper-plate engraving; the engraving was done by Jean-Jacques Le Veau (1729-1786). This certifcate is inscribed on the botton, "Aug. L. Belle, Del." and "J.J.. Le Venu, Sculp." L'Enfant presented the finished copperplate and gold and enamel Eagle badge to the Society's first General Meeting held in Philadelphia in May 1784. However, the French-engraved plate did not include the printed text which was then written out by a Thomas W. Collins in an elegant hand and copied by the engraver, Robert Scot (1744?-1823), who later became engraver to the newly established United States MInt. The first batch ot 100 diplomas were printed on parchment in November 1784, the entire process overseen by George Turner (c.1750-1843). The printed blanks were normally signed by Washington and Knox and then delivered to the state secretaries to be inscribed to the individual members. Maxwell's family emigrated from Ireland to Bedford, Mass. in 1733; he married Bridget Monroe of Lexington in 1759 and moved to Charlemont (area now in Heath) in 1773, where he was a farmer and surveyor. He served in 5 campaigns during the French and Indian Wars; in early 1775 he was appointed lieutenant of a minute-men company and marched to Cambridge after Lexington, joining Prescott; made captain in May 1777; fought at Bunker Hill; served Prescott's regiment near New York and later Bailey's 2nd regiment, where he was made major July 1777; made lieutenant colonel of M. Jackson's 8th regiment Aug. 1, 1782; and was at the siege of Boston and battles of Trenton, Princeton, Saratoga, Monmouth, and Morrisania in 1781. He was town clerk of Heath 1791-1799; Justice of the Peace in Hampshire County 1785-1799; and died on the return journey from the West Indies on October 14, 1799.

allegory; fame

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