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Title:punch bowl
Date Made:ca. 1760
Type:Food Service
Materials:ceramic: white salt-glazed stoneware with overglaze polychrome enamels
Place Made:United Kingdom; England; Staffordshire
Measurements:overall: 5 x 11 1/8 in.; 27.94 cm
Accession Number:  HD 57.111
Museum Collection:  Historic Deerfield

English salt-glazed stoneware punch bowl decorated in red, yellow, pink, blue, and green. English pottery was often decorated with commemorative images of military heroes, members of royalty, or popular events. This rare punch bowl, which is ornamented with a portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788), grandson of James II, also known as The Young Pretender, The Young Chevalier, and later, Bonnie Prince Charlie, documents the Jacobite movement in England. In the Bloodless Revolution of 1688, the last crowned Stuart king, James II (reigned 1685-1688), and his family fled England for France fearing execution for his Roman Catholicism. His daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, assumed the throne of England in 1689. Many people, especially Scots, longed for the return of the 'rightful' kings of England. Members of Jacobite societies secretly drank to the health and return of the exiled Stuart monarchs. In 1745, Prince Charlie invaded Scotland and raised an army of supporters, but was defeated at the battle of Culloden in April, 1746. .After Bonnie Prince Charlie's defeat at Culloden, the Jacobite cause went underground. For many years his supporters observed secret rituals, toasting the King over the water.The prince's portrait was based on a print attributed to Robert Strange (1721-1792), a Scottish engraver, who was with Prince Charles during what was to be referred to as the '45,' effectively the last Jacobite uprising, and fought at Culloden. He was later responsible for several royal portrait commissions, and later pardoned by George III and given a knighthood in 1787. One side has the framed oval cartouche of Prince Charles wearing a blue tam o'shanter with a flower and a blue sash with metal and ribbon over green and brown plaid, flanked by large floral sprays; the opposite side has two brown and blue birds flying over green land with grey foliage. The interior has red and white floral border around the rim and an elaborate floral design in the well with a pink rose at the center. The bowl has a wheel-thrown hemispherical body, impressed band of vertical lines below the outside rim, and an applied foot. Although Staffordshire white stoneware had been perfected by about 1720, its possibilities for mass-production were not fully exploited until the 1740s. Then the techniques of press-moulding, slip-casting and enamelling were developed, and the drabness of the greyish stoneware surface was successfully relieved by the addition of all-over decoration. Colorfully painted stoneware using enameled decoration was being produced in Staffordshire by the mid 1750. Since these pieces required a second firing to fuse the enamels onto the glazed surface, these wares were more expensive than white stoneware

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