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Maker(s):Whitehead, James and Charles (or); Leeds Pottery
Date Made:ca. 1800
Type:Lighting Device
Materials:ceramic: lead-glazed, cream-colored earthenware (creamware)
Place Made:United Kingdom; England; Staffordshire; Hanley or Yorkshire; Leeds
Measurements:overall: 10 1/2 in x 4 3/4 in; 26.67 cm x 12.065 cm
Accession Number:  HD 2006.33.94.1
Credit Line:Museum purchase with funds provided by Ray J. and Anne K. Groves
Museum Collection:  Historic Deerfield

One of a pair of press molded creamware, neoclassical-style candlesticks in a classic silver shape style with a pierced, galleried nozzle; over a reeded stem; four molded husk swags on the shaped, stepped foot; and a beaded border around the square base. While unmarked, these candlesticks bear a strong resemblance to one illustrated in James and Charles Whitehead’s 1798 pattern book (working c.1793-c.1810). However, according to Donald Towner, there are very few distinctive patterns in this pattern book and that many of the engravings seem to be derived from Wedgwood, Leeds, and Castleford pattern books. In fact, the York Museums Trust (Yorkshire Museum) has a similar marked pair made by Hartley Greens & Co. / LEEDS POTTERY, which are not listed in the Leeds Pottery Design Book. There is also a similar pair in the Victoria and Albert Museum, which Bernard Rackham attributed to the Wood family factory at Burslem. In the late 18th century, classical shapes and ornaments replaced the richly carved or asymmetrical designs featured in the earlier Rococo or Chippendale style. Objects excavated at the Roman archaeological sites at Pompeii and Herculaneum in the mid-18th century served as inspiration for new furniture forms and household decoration in this country and Europe. Enoch Booth (c.1703-1773) of Tunstall, England, developed the fine, light-colored earthenware now known as creamware in the early 1740s using the various improvements in body, glaze, and firing; but it was Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) who perfected and successfully marketed the ceramic body. Wedgwood’s version of creamware resulted from many experiments with white clays and improved glazes; by 1762, he had developed a light, sturdy, refined, and yet inexpensive cream-colored earthenware body. Wedgwood described the new product as "a species of earthenware for the table, quite new in appearance, covered with rich and brilliant glaze, bearing sudden alterations of heat and cold, manufactured with ease and expedition, and consequently cheap." Middle-class consumers rushed to purchase creamware, bringing the popularity of alternative ceramics such as tin-glazed earthenware and salt-glazed stoneware to an end. In an effort to capture a segment of the creamware market, many English potteries also began to produce the ceramic; estimates suggest that more than 150 factories in England manufactured the ware. Unfortunately most early wares were not marked, making attribution to a particular factory difficult.

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