Carte de visite of Sanders Ken Grems Nellis (1817-1865) taken during a trip to Santiago, Chile, 1860-1865. Born in Stone Arabia, New York, Sanders Ken Grems Nellis (1817-1865) was one of six children of Johannes Phillip Nellis (1788-1837) and Gertrude Armstrong Nellis (Jul. 20, 1788 - Oct. 2, 1872). Born with dwarfism, Sanders Nellis also did not have arms. According to broadsides and advertisements of the period, Nellis cut silhouettes (see HD 2010.23.2), valentines, and watch papers, folded letters, and made boxes. He also did a variety of physical feats such as wind a watch, dance a hornpipe, shoot a bow and arrow, and play the bass viol. The carte de visite (abbreviated CdV or CDV, and also spelled carte-de-visite or erroneously referred to as carte de ville) was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris, France, by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero. It was usually made of an albumen print, which was a thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. The size of a carte de visite is 2⅛ × 3½ inches mounted on a card sized 2½ × 4 inches. In 1854, Disdéri had also patented a method of taking eight separate negatives on a single plate, which reduced production costs. The Carte de Visite was slow to gain widespead use until 1859, when Disdéri published Emperor Napoleon III's photos in this format. This made the format an overnight success, and the new invention was so popular it was known as "cardomania" and eventually spread throughout the world.,Each photograph was the size of a visiting card, and such photograph cards became enormously popular and were traded among friends and visitors. The immense popularity of these card photographs led to the publication and collection of photographs of prominent persons. "Cardomania" spread throughout Europe and then quickly to America. Albums for the collection and display of cards became a common fixture in Victorian parlors.,By the early 1870s, cartes de visite were supplanted by "cabinet cards," which were also usually albumen prints, but larger and mounted on cardboard backs measuring 4½ by 6½ inches. Cabinet cards remained popular into the early 20th century, when Kodak introduced the Brownie camera and home snapshot photography became a mass phenomenon.
portraits; people with disabilities
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